Authorship and Origin:

This letter to the church in Rome by Paul is perhaps consider his most important writing. It has influenced Christian thought perhaps more than any other epistle. At this time ( about 58 A.D.), Paul is in Corinth, and is planning a trip or campaign West of Rome, and wishes to introduce himself and obtain support from this journey west. He has finished his work in the East, and is on his way through Jerusalem to deliver the financial contribution he raised from the Gentile converts.

Overview and Significant sections

Paul stresses the universality of mankind's sin, but that God saves all through faith in Jesus Christ. He discusses Israel's significant place in God's plan of salvation, and discusses the conduct of Christians. Rome apparently had a well established church at this time, and Paul takes time to add some detail to the theology he has been preaching.
For more detailed study:
Read Chapter 1. (the entire book is available here.)
The Concise Matthew Henry Commentary on this book. study of this book.
the World Wide Study Bible has Dictionary, Commentary, Scripture and sermons available on this book.